Freund, J. S., & Hasher, L. (1989). Judgments of category size: Now you have them, now you don't. American Journal of Psychology, 102, 333-352.
To provide at least a partial explanation for the level-processing effect in frequency judgments, in three experiments we explored the role of covert elicitations of events on the subsequent frequency judgments. Subjects were asked to judge the number of category instances that had been presented, when cued at retrieval by the category instances that had been presented, when cued at retrieval by the category name. In these experiments we hoped to carry the argument regarding the importance of covert occurrences of the category label during encoding, judgments of category size would be impossible. Alternatively, when covert occurrences of those category labels were encouraged during encoding, frequency judgments would be possible. We were successful in two experiments, but only moderately in successful in another.
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