Goldstein, D., Hasher, L., & Stein, D. K. (1983). Processing of occurrence rate and item information by children of different ages and abilities. American Journal of Psychology, 96, 229-241.
Two experiments compare the performance of children who vary in both age and learning ability. In the first experiment, learning disabled and nondisabled children from three age groups were tested for their incidental memory for frequency of occurrence information. In the second experiment, learning disabled and nondisabled children from two age groups were tested for their intentional memory of item information on a free recall test. In agreement with the notion that frequency is automatically encoded, all groups extracted frequency information and neither age nor learning ability influenced performance. However, both age and ability influenced performance on the recall test.
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