Hasher, L. (1973). Position effects in free recall. American Journal of Psychology, 86, 389-397.
Positions effects in multiple-trial free recall were examined for subjects who learned three successive lists under one of two instructional conditions. With standard free-recall instructions, there were pronounced positions effects for both level and order of recall. With subjective-organization instructions, subjects regarded positions cues. Apparently, recency is a disposition or strategy subjects may choose to rely upon to order their recall.
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