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Hasher, L., Attig, M. S., & Alba, J. (1981). I knew it all along: Or, did I? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 89-96.


Other studies have reported that when subjects are presented with outcome feedback they are unable to remember their original knowledge state (the "knew-it-all-along effect"). In the present studies, feedback was followed by manipulations which were intended to invalidate it. In the first experiment, we failed to discredit the feedback and so report a knew-it-all-along effect under circumstances different from those reported elsewhere. In the second experiment, the discrediting instructions were successful and the effect was disrupted. Contrary to previous interpretations, the latter results indicated that feedback information is not automatically assimilated and that people can access their prior knowledge state, if the circumstances require.

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