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Hasher, L., & Greenberg, M. (1977). Expectancies as a determinant of interference phenomena. American Journal of Psychology, 90, 599-607.


One version, by Lockhart, Craik, and Jacoby, of a levels-of-processing model of memory asserts the importance of the role of expectancies about forthcoming information in determining the elaborateness of a memory trace: Expectancies that are subsequently confirmed are presumed to result in less-elaborated traces (via an abbreviation of the required number of cognitive operations) than expectancies that are disconfirmed. The present experiment was a test of the extension of this model to account for the buildup of and release from proactive interference seen in the Brown-Peterson task. The results of the experiment do not support this extension and particularly cast doubt upon the assumption that disconfirmations of expectancies result in especially elaborate memory traces.

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