Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. (1984). Automatic processing of fundamental information: The case of frequency of occurrence. American Psychologist, 39, 1372-1388.
One view of memory supposes that several fundamental aspects of experience are stored in memory by an implicit or automatic encoding process. In this article we review the evidence that suggests that information about frequency of occurrence is encoded in such a manner. This evidence shows that frequency information is stored for a wide variety of naturally occurring events. Laboratory research shows that usually poser task variables (for example, instructions, practice) and subject variables (for example, age, ability) do not influence the encoding process. Evidence is also reviewed that either directly or indirectly implicates the use of frequency information across issues in psychology ranging from the acquisition and representation of knowledge domains to decision making to sex role development.
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