Lockwood Lab



The Lockwood Psychology Lab is located at the St. George Campus at the University of Toronto. Specializing in social psychology research, our studies focus on how social comparisons affect everything from relationships to pro-environmental behaviour. Studies are also conducted to investigate social cognition and self esteem. Specifically, we are currently conducting investigations in the following areas:

Relationship Studies

Research on the social comparisons and interactions which take place between intimate partners: how our views of those we care about affect us.

Social Comparison Studies

Explores upward and downward comparisons made in social situations, and how these comparisons influence beliefs, emotion, and motivation.

Environmental Studies

Research which explores beliefs about the environment and environmentalists, and how those affect the behaviours we engage in.




Thai, S., & Lockwood, P. (2015). Comparing You = Comparing Me: Social Comparisons of the Expanded Self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(7), 989-1004.  [Read]

Thai, S., Lockwood, P., Pinkus, R., & Chen, S. (2015). Being better than you is better for us: Attachment avoidance and social comparisons within romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships[Read]

Bashir, N., Wilson, A., Lockwood, P., Chasteen, A. L., & Alisat, S. (2014). The time for action is now: Subjective temporal proximity enhances pursuit of remote-future goals. Social Cognition, 32(1), 83-93.   [Read]

Bashir, N., Lockwood, P., Chasteen, A. L., Nadolny, D., & Noyes, I. (2013). The ironic impact of activists: Negative stereotypes reduce social change influence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43(7), 614-626.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Shaughnessy, S., Fortune, J., & Tong, M. (2012). Social comparisons in novel situations: Finding inspiration during life transitions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 985-996.  [Read]

Pinkus, R. T., Lockwood, P., Marshall,T., & Yoon, H. M. (2012). Responses to comparisons in romantic relationships: Empathy, shared fate, and contrast. Personal Relationships, 19, 182-201.  [Read]

Bashir, N.Y., Lockwood, P., Dolderman, D., Sarkissian, T., & Quick, L. K. (2011). Emphasizing jobs and trees: Increasing the impact of pro-environmental messages on migrants. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33, 255-265.  [Read]

Gere, J., Schimmack, U., Pinkus, R. T., & Lockwood, P. (2011). The effects of romantic partners' goal congruence on affective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 549-559.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Burton, C., & Boersma, K. (2011). Tampering with tradition: Rationales concerning women's married names and children's surnames. Sex Roles, 65, 827-839.  [Read]

Anusic, I., Schimmack, U., Pinkus, R. T., & Lockwood, P. (2009). The nature and structure of correlations among Big Five ratings: The Halo-Alpha-Beta Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 1142-1156.  [Read]

Pinkus, R.T., Lockwood, P., Schimmack, U., Fournier, M. (2008). For better and for worse: Social comparisons in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1180-1201.   [Read]

Lockwood, P., Pinkus, R. T. (2007). The impact of social comparisons on motivation. In W. L. Gardner and J. Y. Shah (Eds.), The Handbook of Motivation Science. New York: Guilford Press.   [Read]

Lockwood, P., Matthews, J. (2007). The impact of social comparisons on the self. In C. Sedikides and S. J. Spencer (Eds.), The Self. New York: Psychology Press.

Lockwood, P. (2006). Someone like me is successful: Do college students need same-gender role models? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 36-46.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Chasteen, A., Wong, C. (2005). Age and regulatory focus determine preferences for health-related role models. Psychology and Aging, 20, 376-389.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Marshall, T. C., Sadler, P. (2005). Promoting success or preventing failure: Social comparisons across cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 379- 394.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Wong, C., & McShane, K., & Dolderman, D. (2005). The impact of positive and negative fitness exemplars on motivation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1-13.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Dolderman, D., Sadler, P., & Gerchak, L. (2004). Feeling better about doing worse: Social comparisons in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 80-95.   [Read]

Lockwood, P., Sadler, P., Fyman, K., & Tuck, S. (2004). To do or not to do: Using positive and negative role models to harness motivation. Social Cognition, 22, 422-450.  [Read]

Lockwood, P. (2002). Could it happen to you? Predicting the impact of downward comparisons on the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 343-358.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., Jordan, C., & Kunda, Z. (2002). Motivation by positive or negative role models: Regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 854-864.  [Read]

Lockwood, P., & Kunda, Z. (2000). Outstanding role models: Do they inspire or demoralize us? In A. Tesser, R. B. Felson, and J. M. Suls (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on self and identity. Washington, DC: APA.

Lockwood, P., & Kunda, Z. (1999). Increasing the Salience of One's Best Selves Can Undermine Inspiration by Outstanding Role Models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 214-228.  [Read]

Wood, J. V., & Lockwood, P. (1999). Social comparison processes in people who are depressed and low in self-esteem. In R. Kowalski & M. R. Leary (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Interfaces of Social and Clinical Psychology, Washington, D.C.: APA Books.

Lockwood, P., & Kunda, Z. (1997). Superstars and me: Predicting the impact of role models on the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 91-103.   [Read]



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