Spence, I. and Lewandowsky,
S. (1989) Robust multidimensional scaling. *Psychometrika, 54*,
501-513.

Spence, I. (1983)
Dual scaling: An alternative approach to categorical data. Review of
S. Nishisato, Analysis of categorical data: Dual scaling and its applications.
*Canadian Journal of Psychology, 37*, 313-317.

Spence, I. (1983)
Monte Carlo simulation studies. *Applied Psychological Measurement,
7*, 405-425.

Spence, I. (1982)
Incomplete experimental designs for multidimensional scaling. Chapter
3. In R.G. Golledge and J.N. Rayner (Eds.), *Proximity and preference:
Problems in the multidimensional analysis of large data sets*. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.

Spence, I. (1982)
A simple approximation for random rankings stress values. In A.P.M.
Coxon and P.M. Davies (Eds.), *Key texts in multidimensional scaling*.
London: Heinemann [reprint of Spence(1979)].

Spence, I. and Graef,
J. (1980). M-SPACE. In A.P.M. Coxon and P.M. Davies (Eds.), *MDS (X)
Programs: Users' Manual*. London: Macmillan, 1980).

Spence, I. (1979)
A simple approximation for random rankings stress values. *Multivariate
Behavioral Research, 14*, 355-365.

Graef, J. and Spence,
I. (1979) Using distance information in the design of large multidimensional
scaling experiments. *Psychological Bulletin, 86*, 60-66.

Spence, I. and Young,
F.W. (1978) Monte Carlo studies in nonmetric scaling. *Psychometrika,
43*, 115-117.

Spence, I. (1978)
Multidimensional scaling. Chapter 7. In P. Colgan (Ed.), *Quantitative
ethology*. New York: Wiley.

Spence, I. (1976)
Review of R.A.M. Gregson, *Psychometrics of similarity*. *Psychometrika,
41*, 564-566.

Spence, I. and Graef,
J. (1974) The determination of the underlying dimensionality of an empirically
obtained matrix of proximities. *Multivariate Behavioral Research,
9*, 331-341.

Spence, I. (1974)
Review of R.N. Shepard, A.K. Romney, and S.B. Nerlove (Eds.), Multidimensional
scaling: Theory and applications in the behavioral sciences (Vols. I
and II). Geographical Analysis, 6, 202-206.

Spence, I. (1974)
On random rankings studies in nonmetric scaling. *Psychometrika, 39*,
267-268.

Spence, I. and Domoney,
D.W. (1974) Single subject incomplete designs for nonmetric multidimensional
scaling. *Psychometrika, 39*, 460-490.

Spence, I. and Graef,
J. (1973) M-SPACE: A program for the determination of the underlying
dimensionality of an empirically obtained matrix of proximities. *Behavioral
Science, 18*, 227-228.

Spence, I. and Ogilvie,
J.C. (1973) A table of expected stress values for random rankings in
nonmetric multidimensional scaling. *Multivariate Behavioral Research,
8*, 511-517.

Spence, I. (1972)
A Monte Carlo evaluation of three nonmetric multidimensional scaling
algorithms. *Psychometrika, 37*, 461-486.

Spence, I. (1970).
Local minimum solutions in nonmetric multidimensional scaling. *Proceedings
of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association,
13*, 365-367.